Within the first few weeks after the February Revolution, the Provisional Government abolished the death penalty, granted amnesty for all political prisoners and those in exile, ended religious and ethnic discrimination, and granted civil liberties. Most of the victims could have saved themselves by fleeing, but stayed, in a ...read more, The Lonely Hearts Killers, aka Martha Beck and Raymond Martinez Fernandez, are executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison in New York. [CBSE 2014] Answer: The following was the global influence of Russian Revolution and the USSR. Although many wanted a revolution, no one expected it to happen when it did and how it did. On March 8, 1669, Mount Etna, on the island of Sicily in modern-day Italy, begins rumbling. Reasons for the February Revolution, 1917 Tsar Nicholas II was a poor leader. The February revolution in Petrograd - Petrograd was given in the winter of 1917. However, repeated military failures and heavy casualties combined with economic hardships, chronic food shortages and civilian suffering soon created a widespread discontent. The former Duma members represented the middle and upper classes while the Soviet represented workers and soldiers. The Dutch had been in Java since 1596, establishing the Dutch East India Company, a ...read more. At first, Lenin was a lone voice in his condemnation of the Provisional Government. In March (Febru… 1,” which instructed Russian soldiers and sailors to obey only those orders that did not conflict with the directives of the Soviet. It was International Women's Day and the women of Russia were ready to be heard. 1 W eakness of Russia. By 1917 Russia was now more divided than ever, with a government that clearly couldn’t cope and a war dragging on. The first was made up of former Duma members and the second was the Petrograd Soviet. It was International Women's Day and the women of Russia were ready to be heard. Long-term causes can include weaknesses of the Russian monarchy, failure of having strong armed forces, agricultural backwardness and late industrialization. Ask questions, doubts, problems and we will help you. The people themselves were ready. Although there were a few incidents of police and soldiers firing into the crowds, those groups soon mutinied and joined the protesters. The main causes which led to the February Revolution were. In the end, the former Duma members formed a Provisional Government which officially ran the country. To what extent was Russia’s e… What was left was an extreme, vicious regime that was to rule Russia until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Petrograd Soviet. In Russia, the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar) begins when riots and strikes over the scarcity of food erupt in Petrograd. The Russian Civil War dramatically changed the fabric of Russia. were all woken up, taken to the basement, and shot, B.A., History, University of California at Davis. 4. Multiple eruptions over the next few weeks killed more than 20,000 people and left thousands more homeless. By 1917, most Russians had lost faith in the leadership ability of the czarist regime. Tens of thousands of workers and soldiers had come to the station to greet Lenin. 3. Having debated through the night, a vote was taken the following morning -- it was ten to two in favor of a revolution. But Lenin worked ceaselessly over the following few months and eventually, people began to really listen. There were many precursors for the 1917 revolutions, which started in February and ended in October. Lenin returned from his exile and propagated three points from April thesis i.e. The First World War: Russia participated in the First World War on the side of the Allies.During the course of the war, Russian armies suffered heavy losses which demoralised the people.. Without private land ownership, farmers began to grow just enough produce for themselves; there was no incentive to grow more. The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneously out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of Petrograd(present-day St. Petersburg), during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting … After the fall of monarchy a Provincial Government was formed in Russia. ADVERTISEMENTS: (i) Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants continued to live in misery. None of the people's real problems were fixed; instead, their lives became much worse. However, Lenin had more to say. Explain any five effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 over Russia. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and moderates joined Russian radical elements in calling for the overthrow of the czar. How and why did the outbreak of World War I impact on tsarist authority? How did Rasputin contribute to revolutionary sentiment in the build-up to February 1917? Or Explain the impact of the Russian Revolution on the world. Several factories elected deputies to the Petrograd Soviet, or “council,” of workers’ committees, following the model devised during the Revolution of 1905. After Russia pulled out of World War I, millions of Russian soldiers filtered home. All Rights Reserved. Key factors that played a part in the 1905 revolution were exploited by Bolshevik leaders such as Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin in the 1917 revolution. In some encounters, regiments opened fire, killing demonstrators, but the protesters kept to the streets, and the troops began to waver. By September 1917, Lenin believed the Russian people were ready for another revolution. They wanted change. In 1917, two revolutions completely changed the fabric of Russia. In France the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.. Jennifer Rosenberg is a historian and writer who specializes in 20th-century history. The Russian Revolution of 1917 centers around two primary events: the February Revolution and the October Revolution. Then the members of the Duma joined the rebellion; they forced the Tsar to abdicate. On March 14, the Petrograd Soviet issued “Order No. February Revolution begins, leading to the end of czarist rule in Russia, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/february-revolution-begins. 1. Biography of Joseph Stalin, Dictator of the Soviet Union. The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. Then in October, a second Russian Revolution placed the Bolsheviks as the leaders of Russia, resulting in the creation of the world's first communist country. The soldiers, some 150,000 men, subsequently formed committees that elected deputies to the Petrograd Soviet. There are many long-term and short-term causes which led to the overthrow of monarchy in Russia. On March 12, the revolution triumphed when regiment after regiment of the Petrograd garrison defected to the cause of the demonstrators. He reminded the people that the country was still at war and that the Provisional Government had done nothing to give the people bread and land. These women were tired, hungry, and angry. An estimated 90,000 women marched through the streets, shouting "Bread" and "Down With the Autocracy!" Grim economic conditions: The First World War had disastrous impact on the economy of Russia.. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. The February 1917 revolution produced a democratic, republican government, with a, defacto, seperation of powers between the Duma (Russia's elected parliament created after the revolution of 1905) and the Soviets, workers councils also formed during 1905 and later, which until 1917 had no real political power. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased. Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik revolutionary party, left his exile in Switzerland and crossed German enemy lines to return home and take control of the Russian Revolution. By late that morning, Petrograd was in the hands of the Bolsheviks -- all except the Winter Palace where the leaders of the Provisional Government remained. The Tsar, Nicholas II, ordered the army to suppress the riot. Gen. Frederick J. Karch, take up stations 4,000 yards off Red Beach Two, north of Da Nang. Supported by 90,000 men and women on strike, the protesters clashed with police but refused to leave the streets. On March 10, the strike spread among all of Petrograd’s workers, and irate mobs of workers destroyed police stations. b. The Reds were not going to let that happen. Answer. The imperial government was forced to resign, and the Duma formed a provisional government that peacefully vied with the Petrograd Soviet for control of the revolution. He had first used the phrase in a 1982 speech at the British House of ...read more, On March 8, 1993, the Music Television Network (MTV) airs the first episode of the animated series Beavis and Butt-Head, which will go on to become the network’s highest-rated series up to that point. Without a war to support, factories no longer had vast orders to fill. Unfortunately, as well intended as Lenin's promises might have been, they proved disastrous. There were cheers and a sea of red, waving flags. On March 8, 1917, demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets in the Russian capital of Petrograd (now known as St. Petersburg). They began to riot. On the night of July 16-17, 1918, Czar Nicholas, his wife, their children, the family dog, three servants, and the family doctor were all woken up, taken to the basement, and shot. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, was living in exile when the February Revolution transformed Russia. Soon many wanted "Peace, Land, Bread!". Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. On April 3, 1917, Lenin arrived in Petrograd at the Finland Station. Discuss the role played by the fourth Duma and its Provisional Committee in the development of the February Revolution and the overthrow of tsarism. The Russian Revolution of 1917 centers around two primary events: the February Revolution and the October Revolution. Government corruption was rampant, the Russian economy remained backward, and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the Duma, the Russian parliament established after the Revolution of 1905, when it opposed his will. On October 10, a secret meeting of the Bolshevik party leaders was held. The couple had schemed to seduce, rob and murder women who placed personal ads in newspapers. The following day, more than 150,000 men and women took to the streets to protest. Bloody Sunday: Prelude to the Russian Revolution of 1917, Biography of Czar Nicholas II, Last Czar of Russia, Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1918, Execution of Czar Nicholas II of Russia and His Family. and What was his role in the Russian Revolution of […] After nearly a bloodless coup, the Bolsheviks were the new leaders of Russia. The moderates were gone. Dear Student, Common Causes of the February and October revolution: Causes : a. Tsar Nicholas II, ruled the Russian empire in 1914, who was an autocratic ruler. By the end of 1916, even moderate elements were tired of both the war and the tsarist regime. The February 1917 Revolution Although many wanted a revolution, no one expected it to happen when it did and how it did. 2. The Beginning Causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 Essay 509 Words | 3 Pages. Troops loyal to the Bolsheviks took control of the telegraph, power station, strategic bridges, post office, train stations, and state bank. The February Revolution was followed in the same year by the October Revolution, bringing Bolshevik rule and a change in Russia's social structure, and paving the way for the USSR. Share 0. Anger at the Tsar and his government led to massive multi-day strikes. Lenin at first congratulated the Russian people for their successful revolution. Near the beginning of the Russian Civil War, the Reds were worried that the Whites would free the czar and his family, which would not only have given the Whites a psychological boost but might have led to the restoration of the monarchy in Russia. Discuss the actions of Grigori Rasputin between 1905 and 1916. There was heavy food shortage in workers quarters. What Was the USSR and Which Countries Were in It? They weren't the only ones. Java is an island of modern-day Indonesia, and it lies southeast of Malaysia and Sumatra, south of Borneo and west of Bali. The Petrograd Soviet allowed this because they felt that Russia was not economically advanced enough to undergo a true socialist revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1917 is a collective term for two so-called revolutions—one in February and one in October—that occurred in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocratic regime and led to the creation of the Soviet Union and, ultimately, several decades of communist dominance. Yet there was no extra food. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Explain the global influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR. In June 1918, Russia broke out in civil war. They worked long hours in miserable conditions in order to feed their families because their husbands and fathers were at the front, fighting in World War I. They were hungry, tired, and wanted their jobs back. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. Not able to get through, Lenin jumped on top of a car and gave a speech. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Provisional Government vs. It would prove a daunting task. The soldiers joined them. There were also no jobs to be had. The dire social conditions of the Russian people, rural and urban, and unpopularity of the Tsar's regime forced him to abdicate his throne in February 1917. The Civil War lasted over two years and was bloody, brutal, and cruel. The February Revolution . It was the Whites (those against the Soviets, which included monarchists, liberals, and other socialists) against the Reds (the Bolshevik regime). What they did not deal with was an end to the war, land reform, or better quality of life for the Russian people. The February revolution saw the fall of the monarchy. By March 1, it was obvious to everyone except the czar himself that the czar's rule was over. Without a monarchy, the question remained as to who would next lead the country. The new provincial government, tolerated by the Petrograd Soviet, hoped to salvage the Russian war effort while ending the food shortage and many other domestic crises. Many of these workers got together during the strike to discuss politics. However, the immediate cause of the February Revolution–the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917–was Russia’s disastrous involvement in World War I. Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. However, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. The February Revolution in 1917 marked the end of the Tsardom and long-ruling Romanov dynasty. The Provisional Government believed Russia should honor its commitments to its allies in World War I and continue fighting. However, the immediate cause of the February Revolution–the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917–was Russia’s disastrous involvement in World War I. Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in … Soon more people joined them and by Saturday, February 25, the city of Petrograd was basically shut down -- no one was working. what are the causes and effect of february and october revolution explain briefly Share with your friends. On Thursday, February 23, 1917, women workers in Petrograd left their factories and entered the streets to protest. Once the Provisional Government allowed back political exiles, Lenin boarded a train in Zurich, Switzerland and headed home. The Patriots ...read more, Dutch forces surrender to the Japanese after two months of fighting. Czar Nicholas II, who was not in Petrograd during the revolution, heard reports of the protests but did not take them seriously. On March 2, 1917 it was made official when Czar Nicholas II abdicated. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Examine the effectiveness and popularity of the tsarist government between 1912 and 1914. This video is a part of Pebbles CBSE Syllabus Live Teaching Videos Pack. Start studying February Revolution (1917) - Causes and Effects. The revolutionary movement began in Italy with a local revolution in Sicily in January 1848, and, after the revolution of February 24 in France, the movement extended throughout the whole of Europe, with the exception of Russia, Spain, and the Scandinavian countries. Gross industrial production in 191… On March 8, 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, carrying 227 passengers and 12 crew members, loses contact with air traffic control less than an hour after taking off from Kuala Lumpur then veers off course and disappears. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular. The revolution began when a number of workers decided to strike. The Tsar’s decision to enter World War I in 1914 received a strong support from both the public and political leaders. Beck and Fernandez boasted to killing as ...read more, Volkswagen, maker of the Beetle automobile, expands its product offerings to include a microbus, which goes into production on March 8, 1950. The bout marked Ali’s return to the marquee three-and-a-half years after boxing commissions revoked his license over his refusal to fight in the Vietnam ...read more, Speaking to a convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Florida on March 8, 1983, President Ronald Reagan publicly refers to the Soviet Union as an evil empire for the second time in his career. First ashore was the Battalion Landing Team 3/9, which arrived on the beach at 8:15 a.m. ...read more, On March 8, 1971, Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier meet for the “Fight of the Century” at Madison Square Garden in New York City. In Russia, the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar) begins when riots and strikes over the scarcity of food erupt in Petrograd. V.I. However, the canal was so littered with wreckage from the Suez Crisis that it took weeks of cleanup by Egyptian and United Nations workers before larger ships ...read more, The USS Henrico, Union, and Vancouver, carrying the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade under Brig. Failed tsarist economic policies that caused food shortages, general dis-enchantment with the tsarist autocracy, a burgeoning and increasingly radical and revolutionary proletariat and intellectual class, proliferation of revolutionary journals and newspapers that advocated violent regime overthrow, hyper-inflation, and murderous peasant uprisings in the countryside are among the major precursors of the fir… Nearly immediately, Lenin announced that the new regime would end the war, abolish all private land ownership, and would create a system for workers' control of factories. Only Lenin and ‘his’ Bolsheviks refused to join to the common effort to defeat the external enemy. ... Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. In the very early hours of October 25, 1917, the revolution began. On March 11, the troops of the Petrograd army garrison were called out to quell the uprising. Most of the plane, and everyone on board, are never seen ...read more, Following Israel’s withdrawal from occupied Egyptian territory, the Suez Canal is reopened to international traffic. Beavis and Butt-Head offered audiences rude and crude buddy humor in the ...read more. When Was St. Petersburg Known as Petrograd and Leningrad? First, the February Russian Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and established a Provisional Government. and "Stop the War!" Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky successfully fled but by the following day, troops loyal to the Bolsheviks infiltrated the Winter Palace. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! 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