2019c. File:In brief, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2018.pdf. Fisheries is part of two upcoming FSN policies in Solomon Islands. At the same time, the global community is looking at strengthening management of living resources in the deep ocean (seabed and waterbody beyond the continental shelf and Statesâ EEZ). Pacific cod (Gadus microcephalus), hakes and soles are also large contributors to the catches. These modelling studies generally project that fisheries productivity will increase in high latitudes and decrease in mid- and low latitudes (Porter et al., 2014), primarily due to species shift. For this reason, FAO is developing partnerships with relevant organizations to allow more regular and timely updates. â¸ Increase accountability and build greater trust in the capacity and transparency of the fisheries sector to be part of the solution, and improve cohesion with conservation objectives. 224 pp. Rome. Asia continues to grow in terms of employment in the sector, albeit at a more measured pace with its large absolute number of people employed in the primary sector of aquaculture and fisheries. Recognizing that stocks become depleted for a range of reasons, the fisheries sector as a whole is working on reversing overfishing on target stocks and fisheries impacts on non-commercially fished species (Garcia et al., 2018). It is expected that such guidance will accelerate the uptake and adoption of both the VGGT and SSF Guidelines at the global, regional and local levels, and to support the achievement of the SDGs. â¸ Promote and strengthen diverse, inclusive and accountable partnerships to effectively manage ecosystems for both biodiversity and food security. â¸ Promote approaches to fisheries development and governance that build on the principles of the SSF Guidelines. 25 Jun 2020 Originally published 25 Jun 2020. 290 pp. In marine and inland fisheries, the connection between sustainable resource use and secure tenure, user and access rights is widely recognized. Estrada, R.C. The Eastern Indian Ocean continues to show a steady increase in catches, reaching an all-time high of 7 million tonnes in 2017. For capture fisheries, Chinaâs policies aim to reduce its domestic catches through controls on licensing, reduction in the number of fishers and fishing vessels, and output controls. In addition to being the major fish producer, China has been the main exporter since 2002 and, since 2011, the third major importing country in terms of value. 2017. Minimum standards for âbest availableâ science to support fisheries management have been developed and published (MFish, 2008). The measures necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 have caused disruption in all segments of both domestic and international supply chains. However, there is strong global evidence for these effects. This also holds for the marketing of the products. Cioppo-Morstadt, N. Vera-Lucio & M. Bucaram-Leverone, eds. Basic knowledge on the pathogen (e.g. Rome, FAO. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Rome, FAO. In relation to inland fisheries, regional cooperation is focusing on: prohibiting destructive fishing methods; addressing the biodiversity of aquatic habitats and ecosystems; and addressing the interests and rights of small-scale fishers in their management plans. Key tools to help achieve SDG Target 14.b are: capacity development of fishers and fishworkers, including for women engaged in post-harvest activities; technical assistance; and information dissemination regarding market access requirements and markets. These reports were used by FAO to estimate, production from non-reporting countries at 12.4 percent (10.1 million tonnes) of the total production. FAOâs Blue Fishing Ports initiative aims to leverage the strategic position of fishing ports in the seafood value chain to promote positive and sustainable socio-economic growth while reducing their pollution footprint. Guided by its Members and with concern to respond to global societal demand, FAO has developed a wide range of data and information products in order to establish baselines, monitor changes, and support decision-making. Africa is a net importer in volume terms but a net exporter in terms of value, reflecting the higher unit value of exports, which are destined primarily for developed country markets, particularly Europe. Latin American exports, comprising primarily shrimp, tuna, salmon and fishmeal from Ecuador, Chile and Peru, were boosted in 2018. The State of the Worldâs Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture1 uses the following definitions, which are based in part on the customs of crop and livestock nomenclature, but the terms âstrainâ and âfarmed typeâ have been newly elaborated. The number of megacities (cities with more than 10 million inhabitants) reached 33 in 2018, of which more than 15 are in developing countries (UN DESA, 2018). of mangroves); the use of harmful chemicals and veterinary drugs; the impact of escapees on wild stocks; inefficient or unsustainable production of fishmeal and fish oil; and social and cultural impacts on aquaculture workers and communities. Reducing loss and waste increases available food, as well as the value of fish products if implementing internationally agreed safety and quality standards on fish processing, distribution and consumption, in accordance with WTO rules. Second, several Sustainable Development Goal indicators mature in 2020. This allows countries that are contributing positively to growth in inland fisheries to be identified, versus those countries for which inland fishery catch has no clear trend or is declining. 1539 Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 8(2): 83â91. Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) continue to promote âmainstreaming of biodiversity for well-beingâ, the theme of the CBD 2016 global conference. Deep-sea fishing (DSF) occurs over continental slopes, seamounts, ridge systems and banks on soft muddy sediments and hard, rocky substrates, mostly between 400 m and 1 500 m, although some specialized vessels may fish down to 2 000 m. While DSF can be traced back 450 years, major expansion began with the deployment of factory-freezer trawlers in the mid-1950s, leading to huge catches. The first group âcarps, barbels and other cyprinidsâ has shown a continuous increase, rising from about 0.6 million tonnes per year in the mid-2000s to over 1.8 million tonnes in 2018, and explains most of the increase in catches from inland waters in recent years. These guidelines can be improved with due consideration to trade, location and culture in the dietâenvironmental footprint analysis (Kim et al., 2019). Relative level of economic and social development. There are many sources of information at different scales, and the information collection process should be multidisciplinary and use a bottom-up approach where local stakeholdersâ information and knowledge are collected and aggregated at the national level for reporting. FAO-Thiaroye processing technique: towards adopting improved fish smoking systems in the context of benefits, trade-offs and policy implications from selected developing countries. at 10 percent and tuna (9 percent) (Figure 33). Although the choices available to an individual consumer have multiplied, at the global level they are increasingly similar among countries and regions. & Shelton, C. 2018. 1. Coordinated global capacity building programmes to significantly improve fisheries sustainability are critical in this regard, with specific focus in regions where achieving sustainability is challenging, or where fisheries sustainability status is unknown, and particular attention to data-limited fisheries in developing regions. In 2017, 34.2 percent of the fish stocks of the worldâs marine fisheries were classified as overfished. The revision was guided by the management of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, and benefited from inputs from the departmentâs different branches. Seaweeds and other aquatic plants have been used as food for centuries in Asia, and they are increasingly gaining attention in many countries elsewhere due to their perception as being an environmentally friendly food that is rich in nutrients, such as iodine, iron and vitamin A (Tanna and Mishra, 2019). Notably, some malnutrition problems such as anaemia in women of reproductive age and prevalence of obesity, including in children, are following an upward trend at the global level. Below is a summary of FAOâs plan for country-level assessment and reporting. 2019. Women fish processors who use traditional ovens are particularly affected by smoke and heat, and suffer from respiratory problems. World Bank. (also available at www.fao.org/3/a-i2727e.pdf). 22 Following United Nations General Assembly Resolution 72/249. The farming of microalgae fits into the widely accepted definition of aquaculture. In the period 1976â2018, the share of developing countries of trade in fish and fish products increased from 38 percent of global export value to 54 percent, and from 39 percent to 60 percent of total quantity (in live weight equivalent), supported by strong aquaculture production growth and heavy investment in export market development. Much has changed in the past 25 years, from overfishing to rapid development in international trade in fish and fish products, to the rapid growth of aquaculture, and to the recognition of the impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture. Global Environmental Change, [online]. Reinforce international and regional governance mechanismsGlobal and regional fisheries are governed through a multitude of instruments, but these are not always effectively implemented. About 71 percent of the worldâs fish available for human consumption in 2030 (183 million tonnes) will be consumed in Asia, while the lowest quantities will be consumed in Oceania and Latin America. Costanza, R., de Groot, R., Braat, L., Kubiszewski, I., Fioramonti, L., Sutton, P., Farber, S. & Grasso, M. 2017. At the regional and global level, the questionnaire responses indicate a strong trend toward improvements in fisheries management in both marine fisheries and inland fisheries (Figures 41 and 42). In contrast, the Eastern Central Pacific (Area 77), Southwest Pacific (Area 81), Northeast Pacific (Area 67), and Western Central Pacific (Area 71) had the lowest proportion (13â22 percent) of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels. Urbanization and expansion of the fish-consuming middle class have fuelled demand growth in developing market, outpacing that of developed nations. Consistent application of an approved gear marking system may also help identify and prevent IUU fishing, which in turn will reduce illegal abandonment and disposal of fishing gear. Overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction and heat-related climate change events, among other anthropogenic pressures, put at risk prospects for food security and nutrition, and resilient livelihoods in the longer term â ecosystem services can be valued at more than the equivalent annual global domestic product of the worldâs economies (Costanza et al., 2017). 27 pp. Chinaâs statistics for 1997â2005 were subsequently revised, with a downward impact on the global fisheries and aquaculture statistics reported by FAO. ASFAâs international partnership model also ensures representation from institutions worldwide, countering publication bias and ensuring that the valuable research performed in countries and regions under-represented by traditional publishers is not lost. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 42, 120â133. & Charles, A., eds. The State Of World Fisheries And Aquaculture 2020 by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Several decades ago the efforts of public administrations were concentrated on de 397 pp. ASFA is a partnership, established in 1971, to ensure the dissemination of information on aquatic sciences, fisheries and aquaculture. File; File history; File usage on Commons; Metadata; Size of this JPG preview of this PDF file: 436 × 600 pixels. In addition, Members that have taken measures to promote responsible aquaculture practices are equally ensuring support to rural communities, producer organizations and fish farmers. The indicator is comprised of five variables, each of which has been assigned a weighting depending on its importance in eliminating IUU fishing, while taking into consideration areas of overlap between certain instruments. However, this increase, together with the expansion of aquaculture production (by 48 percent in 2030 compared with 2018) and capture fisheries production (by 5 percent), will only partially compensate for the population growth. The sub-basin disaggregation shows how different parts of a basin may contribute to its overall threat level. The proportion of fish used for direct human consumption has increased significantly from 67 percent in the 1960s. In addition to filter-feeding finfish, freshwater bivalves, including those species that are produced for freshwater pearl production, are now utilized for aquaculture-effluent treatment on individual farms as well as under communal-setting clustering of several farms. The expansion of fish processing has resulted in increasing quantities of by-products, which may represent up to 70 percent of processed fish. It provides technical assistance to stakeholders to improve fisheries governance and management and value-chain performance through implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and other relevant guidelines of the Code. The resources in this area experienced extreme fishing pressures in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 569 (FAO, 2011). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(4): 2218â2224 [online]. Major improvements in processing as well as in refrigeration, ice-making and transportation have enabled distribution of fish over long distances, across borders and in a greater variety of product forms. Typically, small-scale fisheries processing is characterized by hot smoking and drying processes, where women are in charge. While the markets of developed countries still dominate fish imports, the importance of developing countries as consumers has been steadily increasing. Between 2006 and 2016, the overall damage and loss to the fisheries sector from disasters amounted to more than USD 1.1 billion, which represents about 3 percent of all damage and loss in the agriculture sector.2, 1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. There is no alternative to sustainabilityGiven the livelihood and food security pressures in many developing regions, sustainability challenges need to be addressed with measures that move beyond simple environmental protection targets. Such arrangements should be sensitive to the seasonality of fishing operations and fluctuating incomes of fishers and fishworkers. Given the livelihood and food security pressures in many developing regions, sustainability challenges need to be addressed with measures that move beyond protection targets. The heavy productive work burden is coupled with the unpaid reproductive work burden within the household (child bearing and rearing; household maintenance, including cooking and fetching water and fuelwood; and caring for old and sick family members) and the community-level work burden resulting in a triple work burden for women working in agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture. 1150. As initiated with Chinaâs Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016â2020), the countryâs policies in the next decade are expected to continue the transition from extensive to intensive aquaculture, aiming to better integrate production with the environment through the adoption of ecologically sound technological innovations, with capacity reduction, followed by faster growth. Choosing salient approaches and methods for adaptation: decision support methods for adaptation. In 2018, 39 countries, located across all regions except Oceania, produced more aquatic animals from farming than fishing. 01.11.2020 493 sypo. The fishing pressure exerted on an inland fishery is a function of: human population density; primary productivity and secondary production of the waterbody; accessibility of the fishery; and socio-economic dependence on inland fish and the availability of alternative foods and livelihoods. [Cited 7 January 2020] https://blogs.gartner.com/avivah-litan/2019/03/05/enterprise-permissioned-blockchain-hardly-revolution-yet/, Lotze, H.K., Tittensor, D.P., Bryndum-Buchholz, A., Eddy, T.D., Cheung, W.W.L., Galbraith, E.D., Barange, M., Barrier, N., Bianchi, D., Blanchard, J.L., Bopp, L., BÃ¼chner, M., Bulman, C.M., Carozza, D.A., Christensen, V., Coll, M., Dunne, J.P., Fulton, E.A., Jennings, S., Jones, M.C., Mackinson, S., Maury, O., Niiranen, S., Oliveros-Ramos, R., Roy, T., Fernandes, J.A., Schewe, J., Shin, Y.-J., Silva, T.A.M., Steenbeek, J., Stock, C.A., Verley, P., Volkholz, J., Walker, N.D. & Worm, B. The new assessment includes, among others: an estimate of annual discards by marine commercial fisheries for the period 2010â14; an evaluation and discussion of bycatch and discards of endangered, threatened and protected species; and a review of current measures for managing bycatch (Box 15) and reduction of discards. Some of these have important medical and biomedical applications due to their high antioxidant effects and as vitamin A precursors. However, the irruption of new and emerging technologies â such as high-resolution satellite imagery, the Automatic Identification System (AIS), cameras and in situ sensors, DNA and genetic profiling, blockchain, the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning â is likely to significantly affect the established data supply chain and disrupt the sectorâs management in the short-to-medium term. Relative contribution of aquaculture and capture fisheries to fish available for human consumption, 28. & Jennings, S. 2014. Blue growth, also referred to as âblue economyâ, âgreen economy in a blue worldâ or âocean economyâ, has its origins in the green economy concept endorsed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012. The reportâs findings highlight key differences between aquatic and terrestrial genetic resources. Science, 347(6219): 1255641 [online]. As this report was being prepared, COVID-19 emerged as one of the greatest challenges that we have faced together since the creation of FAO. Demand for bivalves has increased substantially over time, a result of rising incomes worldwide but also a consequence of the favourable characteristics of bivalve species from a consumer perspective. 76 pp. Rome. FIGURE 37FISHMEAL AND SOYBEAN MEAL PRICES IN GERMANY AND THE NETHERLANDS, FIGURE 38FISH OIL AND SOYBEAN OIL PRICES IN THE NETHERLANDS. Since 2014, FAO has organized an annual multi-stakeholder consultation called the Vigo Dialogue on Decent Work in Fisheries and Aquaculture, which reviews different experiences, their challenges and benefits, as well as ways and means of promoting decent employment in fisheries and aquaculture. However, since 1980, only three major developments in DSF have taken place: orange roughy trawling; longlining for toothfish; and bottom trawling for Greenland halibut (Hosch, 2018). In: United Nations [online]. The majority of the worldâs inland fishery catch comes from basins that score 4â5 (47 percent) or higher at 6â7 (38 percent). Rome. Some of the more important ones are: (i) weak regulatory frameworks, enforcement and implementation of international standards and guidelines for biosecurity best practices; (ii) weak coordination between the multiple institutions involved in aquaculture production and aquatic animal health management (i.e. It also reduces the use of fuelwood, thus making it a climate-smart technology. C 2019/23. In Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Gambia, Ghana, Indonesia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and some SIDS, fish contributed 50 percent or more of total animal protein intake. FIGURE 9ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF AQUACULTURE FISH PRODUCTION QUANTITY IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM. Pigments such as astaxanthin and its esters, Î²-carotene, lutein, astacene, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin are also found in crustacean waste. World aquaculture production of farmed aquatic animals grew on average at 5.3 percent per year in the period 2001â2018 (Figure 9), whereas the growth was only 4 percent in 2017 and 3.2 percent in 2018. Overfishing currently impacts selected coastal resources of high value, such as groupers and shrimps. Developing countries face spec…, The culmination of over a decade's worth of research by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP), Dynamics of Pond Aquac…, This publication offers a synthesis of the major factors at play in the global food and agricultural landscape. Members have been expressing an interest in better guidance on the governance of small-scale fisheries since the mid-2000s, especially with regard to safety at sea since 2009. https://traceability-dialogue.org/, Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative (GSSI). Catches in temperate areas continue to remain stable at between 37.5 million tonnes and 39.6 million tonnes per year following the two highest peaks in catches between 1988 and 1997 at about 45 million tonnes. As fisheries and aquaculture is one of the sectors most impacted by the pandemic, the baseline information provided in this report is already helping FAO respond with technical solutions and targeted interventions. McLean, USA, International Seafood Sustainability Foundation. More than 51 tonnes of tuna were seized and 5 criminal cases initiated. www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-consumption/en, FAO. In addition, there are also issues of timeliness or the non-reporting of the data to FAO, which affects the quality and completeness of FAOâs estimates of total capture fisheries. The State Of World Fisheries And Aquaculture 2020 Pdf Download. In contrast, the percentage of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels increased from 10 percent in 1974 to 34.2 percent in 2017. Several other countries also promote their own sustainable aquaculture heritage in different ways. However, there is limited or no routine monitoring of the status of capture fisheries in most of these basins (see the section Improving the assessment of global inland fisheries). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. To a large extent, the growth of international trade in fish and fish products has followed the expansion of trade in general, enhanced by globalization and liberalization policies in recent decades. 44â56. 2020 FAO "State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture” report. Although AIS can provide information on fishing activity much more rapidly than can logbooks or official assessments via a vessel monitoring system (VMS), its level of detail (e.g. ScienceBase will serve as the data repository, a catalogue of code and data processing documentation, and a link to acquired datasets and relevant collaborations (United States Geological Survey, 2020).
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