Here, Al Jazeera takes an in-depth look at what is the National Guard and what will be its effect. But shortly before taking office on December 1, 2018, Lopez Obrador proposed the formation of the National Guard, under military command, as a response to an increasingly destructive situation. 8 November 2020, 11:38 UTC. [6], A 2019 survey sponsored by The Washington Post and Mexico's newspaper Reforma gathered information on public opinion regarding both the new National Guard and illegal immigration to Mexico. Lopez Obrador has said he wants the forces’ members to display military discipline. Mexico says it has deployed thousands of National Guard forces along its northern border with the U.S. and 6,000 along the southern border with Guatemala. In the capital, Mexico City, some 2,700 members of the force will be deployed on Sunday in eight of its 16 municipalities, according to Mayor Claudia Sheinbaum. It says they are there to stop migrants. “They will start activities without having rules, or protocols – not even the budgets have been announced yet.”, “[In my view], what they are effectively doing is using military members that were already out [in the streets[, but they are now calling them a National Guard.”. art. The National Guard will initially be populated by veterans of the Mexican military and federal police, and though it operates under the civilian Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection, it may be headed by a military officer. On June 18, the entire National Guard, except for coast artillery units, was called to duty. Three months later, on May 27, the law regulating the National Guard entered into force . The National Guard (Spanish: Guardia Nacional) is a Mexican gendarmerie with national police functions created in 2019. [6], According to article 12 of the Law of the National Guard, the National Guard is organized on five command levels:[11]. Mérida Airport will be able to receive up to 4.5 million passengers per year. All units of the Iowa National Guard were mustered into federal service and dispatched to the Mexican … As the events of last week have shown, the deal was a victory for none except U.S. imperialism, which has successfully strong-armed Mexico into serving as the southern arm of its Border Patrol. The history of the New Mexico National Guard is unique; it has existed since the 1500s under many names, from the time of the Spanish and Mexican established Nuevo México to the present. The Mexican National Guard was launched by President of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador in 2019. “The increase of homicides and kidnappings in Mexico has forced this current government to take these measures,” Buenrostro, the professor, said. According to the plan, the military will remain active in the fight against crime over a five-year period, while the National Guard is made fully operational. “The military have been in many instances acting as sources of violence  … it’s the way they operate, the army has been trained to destroy the enemy,” Falko Ernst, an analyst in Crisis Group, told Al Jazeera. "Those of us who are part of the National Guard recognize the spirit that joins us with the armed forces, because we are driven by the same objective of providing security to the Mexican people," he said. Mexico’s National Guard used pepper spray to fend off about 1,500 immigrants as they tried to enter the country through its southern border with Guatemala, Reforma reported. On 28 February 2019, after a long debate between politicians, opinion leaders, civil society and other national and international actors, Congress approved reforms for the creation of a National Guard, as proposed in President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s Security Plan for Mexico in November 2018. Mexican National Guard blocks US-bound migrant caravan. It is also established that detentions by National Guard members could be filmed, but this is not mandatory. The mission is unclear", "Unauthorized Immigrants Face Public Backlash in Mexico, Survey", "Mexico Approves 60,000-Strong National Guard. The US is pressing for changes in asylum law. “The gangsters had passed all the limits in Veracruz,” Gonzalez told Al Jazeera, arguing that the situation has improved since the deployment of the force. [3], In early June 2019, as part of a deal the United States, Mexico agreed to deploy the newly formed National Guard to their border with Guatemala. The newly-created National Guard, a sort of alternative to the police and the military, were tasked with the protection of the Mexican people. Obr… “This worries the general population,” Javier Buenrostro, a professor at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, said. Anyone looking for a job in security might be interested to know the National Guard is hiring. It has since played a major part in intensifying the enforcement of their immigration policy. Past Mexican administrations have used the military to combat drug cartels after determining that local police forces were corrupt. [3] The survey was conducted through July 9 to July 14, 2019, among 1,200 Mexicans adults across the country in 100 election districts by way of face-to-face interviews. However, there is a law that defines its functions and organisation. The governor said the National Guard will be dispatched to protect toll plazas and arrest those who attempt to occupy them. Lopez Obrador said last month. Similarly, for the Mexican scenario, temporary operations of the National Guard may have impact in three ways: it would encourage organised criminal groups to co-opt, intimidate or coerce local communities; shut out the possibility to gain granular information for intelligence purposes from local communities; and damage any serious attempt to build institutions at the state and municipal levels. The event is hosted by NMNG's Environmental Programs to promote recycling. Photographs of heavily armed National Guard members detaining two women at the Mexican side of the border with the United States were criticised by activists. The controversial force is officially starting operations across the country on Sunday. By Duncan Tucker. Earlier this week, the president said Sunday’s deployment would involve 70,000 National Guard members. Lopez Obrador acknowledged that the National Guard was not instructed to carry out detentions during its border deployment. [7][8], A Post-Reforma survey was conducted among Mexican adults after a dramatic increase in Mexico's immigration enforcement following the agreement made in June with the United States. During this 60-day period, the National Guard will take over the investigative and law enforcement powers of Mexico’s Federal Police. Mexico’s new National Guard is breaking its vow to respect human rights. President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador created the new agency to combat gang violence. ALBUQUERQUE, N.M - Over 136 days, 36 Air National Guard members worked as a part of the CARES Act team. Before his election last year, the president had initially campaigned on a promise to break from the policies of his predecessors and pull the military off the streets. Authorities have presented the National Guard as a hybrid institution that combines officers from the army police, naval police and federal police. 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During the inauguration, National Guard Commander Luis Rodriguez said Mexico’s armed forces "have never been so closely aligned at the federal, state and local level." Within days, the first of 158,664 National Guardsmen were on their way to camps in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. The final composition of the force deployed on Sunday is still not clear. It comprises the New Mexico Army National Guard and the New Mexico Air National Guard . President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador introduced the force in spring in a bid to tackle violent crime and restore public safety. Shortly after getting into office, Obrador released a plan to create the National Guard under control of the Mexican Armed Forceswhich would be in charge of "preventing and combating crime". Mexico presented with much fanfare Sunday its new National Guard, which is supposed to stem endemic violence and restore peace in the country. [2][4] Obrador stated that the new National Guard would be critical to solving Mexico's ongoing security crisis. In the capital, Mexico City, some 2,700 members of the force will be deployed on Sunday in eight of its 16 municipalities, according to Mayor, Alfonso Durazo, the secretary of security and civilian protection, he force is scheduled to expand to an estimated. Agents of the National Migration Institute (INM) detain a migrant during an operation by the National Guard to halt a caravan of migrants from Africa, the Caribbean and Central America, hours after they embarked toward the United States, in Tuzantan, in Chiapas state, Mexico October 12, 2019. “The forced disappearances haven’t stopped, and if the National Guard comes with carte blanche to do what they want, they will go on – that is what we don’t want, more dissapearances, more human rights violations.”, Mexico’s president to choose head of force, Mexico’s recently formed National Guard is beginning operations on Sunday with the task, “Although it is already operating in some states, the national, formal operation will begin on. “And while there are academic discussions that are important … people are demanding more safety and there is a big approval towards this initiative. Mexico’s recently formed National Guard is beginning operations on Sunday with the task of improving the country’s deteriorating security situation. The New Mexico National Guard is part of the armed forces of the U.S. state of New Mexico. “This deployment is unconstitutional,” said Pablo Girault, adviser of the Mexico United Against Crime NGO. The National Plan for Peace and Security recognises that a military unit’s ultimate purpose is to confront, neutralise and destroy an enemy force. Some activists and analysts, however, have expressed concerns about the force’s deployment and questioned the duties of its members. Nearly 8,500 people were murdered in the first three months of the year. A 54% majority say that President Obrador is standing up for the interests of Mexico in his dealings with the United States and illegal immigration. According to Alfonso Durazo, the secretary of security and civilian protection, the force is scheduled to expand to an estimated 120,000 members by 2021, and to 150,000 by 2023. Watch the 150th Special Operations Wing, NM Air National Guard race for the finish line. Before becoming President of Mexico, Obrador campaigned on a promise to take the military off the streets of Mexico. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador told hundreds of National Guard members assembled at a ceremonial military field in the capital that they are the "soul" of the newly formed institution. It absorbed the military police, the naval police and the federal police, and took over almost the entire air fleet of the federal police. [3], The law assigns full control of the National Guard to the Secretary of Security and Civilian Protection, who is in charge of all matters related to the work of the NG. “Governments have spent 20 years trying to train the federal police, and it has not been possible, they are corrupt. [3] Furthermore, 51% of Mexicans support utilizing the country's recently formed National Guard to repel the migration of illegal immigrants in Mexico. Under Mexico's new National Guard, federal police officers fear they will lose pay and seniority benefits. Mexico’s recently formed National Guard is beginning operations on Sunday with the task of improving the country’s deteriorating security situation. New Mexico National Guard . October 23, 2020 Cartels issue … [1][5], On 28 February, Mexico's national legislature voted to approve a 60,000-member national guard. The National Guard was founded in 2019 to battle organized crime at a federal level in Mexico. Belen Gonzales, a citizen from Veracruz, who says Marines were involved in the disappearance of her son in 2015, was also worried about a permanent militarised force on the streets. [1][2], The Mexican National Guard was launched by President of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador in 2019. “This might have been inevitable, due to the lack of resources from the state, but the population needs a legal certainty on the Guard’s role and attributions,” he added. On February 28, 2019, Mexico’s Congress passed the constitutional reforms that created the National Guard, while setting a five-year limit on the use of the military in public security tasks. After that transition period, the military will be pulled from the streets. Secretary of Security and Civilian Protection; This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 15:10. New Mexico National Guard . According to the National Law on the Use of Force, which was introduced in May, National Guard members could use force when deployed, but this must be proportional to the level of resistance displayed by the aggressor. [7][8] President of the United States, Donald Trump, threatened to raise tariffs on Mexico if it did not help to curb Illegal Immigration. The force “will follow with the discipline, hierarchy and rank of the armed forces”, the government said in its National Plan for Peace and Security. “They are expected to deal with public safety, and now they are somehow involved with immigration. The goal was to reduced criminality within the first year of its inception. A year ago, Mexican president Manuel Lopez Obrador promised that military forces, then highly criticized by Human Rights advocates, would leave the streets. Girault also warned that the presence of forces on the streets of Mexico City would affect “social coexistence”. It blames, however, inadequate human rights training for the mistakes previously made by the armed forces and says it plans to change this. But he currently maintains a strong 70% job approval rating eight months after assuming office. The Mexican National Guard announced Tuesday that six of its members have been arrested in connection with the death of a woman after troops allegedly opened fire on her vehicle. “It also has the same elements and the same plan that other governments have executed before. Mexico's National Guard was created in 2019 under orders of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who pooled in some 60,000 members of … But the deployment of military forces led to an increase of abuses, including allegations of torture, enforced disappearances, extrajudicial executions and arbitrary detentions, according to Amnesty International. more recommended stories . The Defense Department is actively weighing reducing the number of active duty troops on the southern border with Mexico and replacing them with members of the National Guard… In the aftermath of the National Guard’s creation, Mexican officials declared that the deal to deploy the Guard was a victory for Mexico because it stopped the tariffs. The Federal Police has the power to conduct criminal investigations under the direction and command of federal prosecutors in a manner that allows the evidence gathered to be admitted in pertinent court proceedings. Another concern cited by activists is that the regulation that explains the legal provisions under which the National Guard will operate has not been issued yet. “The situation is really severe, not only due to the current levels of criminal violence … but also because we don’t have the members to fight this insecurity,” he told Mexican news outlet Milenio last month. “We have a force that is still not fully consolidated,” Girault, the NGO adviser, said. According to article 29 of the Law of the National Guard, the ranks are: Department of Security and Civil Protection, Secretary of Security and Civilian Protection, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Mexico is sending its new national guard to the Guatemala border. 2 transitorio.) “So what [the government] is doing is to introduce another violent actor in an already violent context.”. “It will deteriorate the relationship between the authorities and the citizens, and it will increase the human rights violations,” he said. Mexico National Guard Prevents Caravan Members From Crossing Border Migrants trying to make it from Central America to the U.S. were blocked by Mexican troops. Mexico’s president, facing intense pressure to bring record-breaking homicide rates under control, has begun to deploy the country’s new National Guard in Mexico City. A year after a mass caravan departed Honduras, a new group tries to head to US from southern Mexico, but is stopped. [7][8][9] While the guard was always intended to enforce immigration policy, it was not intended to do so as soon as announced. Last week, almost 15,000 army soldiers and National Guard members were deployed to the north of the country. But others described the deployment as another effort to deploy the military in the fight against crime, arguing that this was no different from previous failed strategies. “Although it is already operating in some states, the national, formal operation will begin on June 30,” Lopez Obrador said last month. Lauro Gonzalez, a doctor and community leader in Veracruz, the state that in April witnessed the first deployment of the National Guard, agreed. [3] A 53% majority of Mexicans have voiced their trust in the national guard, with two-thirds of Mexicans saying that they would like the national guard to be in their city, whereas 45% report that they feel more safe with the domestic force. As Mexico negotiates a tariff deal with its northern neighbor, the National Guard has been sent to stem the flow of migrants coming from Central America. The national deployment of the National Guard might have been met with scepticism by some, but others believe it is needed as a response to an “extraordinary situation”. [3] Before becoming President of Mexico, Obrador campaigned on a promise to take the military off the streets of Mexico. [5] On 30 June 2019, the National Guard was officially established. But besides what analysts described as an “alarming violation”, they also questioned the use of the force to contain a wave of mostly Central American migrants instead of its stated primary purpose to combat organised crime. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act allowed for members of the Guard to be put on orders full time to support New Mexicans' needs and assistance during the global pandemic. The army instead is an institution that has more professionalism and antiquity,” he added. ( Id . Jessica Silva and her husband Jaime Torres were driving through Delicias, a town in the northern state of Chihuahua, late on 8 September when members of … Joseph Vigil, a spokesman for the New Mexico branch of the National Guard, said its pilots received high marks from local and state ground crews as they sought to contain the Luna Fire. The National Guard’s top commanders are military officers, who report to Durazo. 120,000 members by 2021, and to 150,000 by 2023. were involved in the disappearance of her son in 2015, was also worried about a permanent militarised force on the streets. [10] Several analysts had predicted the base for the President of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador to be disillusioned when he agreed to heighten Mexico's immigration enforcement. According to local reports, the first quarter of 2019 is already the most violent in Mexico’s modern history. In February, Durazo had proposed an initial make-up of 35,000 army soldiers, 8,000 navy police members and 18,000 federal police members – a total of 61,000 members. It has since played a major part in intensifying the enforcement of their immigration policy. The use of lethal force must correspond to an imminent lethal threat, such as the threat of a firearm or a person threatening with a sharp weapon an agent, or a victim. Lt Col Squire, Commander of Albuquerque MEPS, and LTC Armijo, New Mexico Army National Guard RRBN Commander, formally recognized the members of the New Mexico Army National Guard who provided outstanding support to the Albuquerque MEPS from 1 June to 30 September The support provided by 2LT Miller, SGT Martinez, SPC Crum, SPC Valenzuela, and SSG Stewart (not … The New Mexico National Guard is a trusted and influential organization recognized as a top National Guard force, capable and competent to meet the challenges of the 21st century. [1] The National Guard was formed by absorbing units and officers from the Federal Police, Military Police, and Naval Police. [2] Shortly after getting into office, Obrador released a plan to create the National Guard under control of the Mexican Armed Forces which would be in charge of "preventing and combating crime". The law also authorises the use of force against protests that do not have a “lawful purpose”, and gives security forces the power to assess whether or not a demonstration is lawful. “There are things that still need to be addressed, but the government is responding to an emergency,” he added, describing the situation in Mexico as “a small civil war”. Some highlights from today's New Mexico National Guard's 2nd annual Cardboard Boat Regatta at Cochiti Lake. Critics Call It More of the Same", "México necesita una Guardia Nacional realmente civil", "Mexico Scrambles To Establish National Guard After Promising To Tighten Border", "Mexico's National Guard, a 'Work in Progress,' Deployed to Curb Migration", "How Mexico Beefs Up Immigration Enforcement To Meet Trump's Terms", "U.S.-Mexico Joint Declaration - United States Department of State", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=National_Guard_(Mexico)&oldid=993614368, Military units and formations established in 2019, Federal law enforcement agencies of Mexico, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using law enforcement agency with civilian police general nature, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles needing additional references from March 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Earlier this week, the president said Sunday’s deployment would involve 70,000 National Guard members. 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