We included 55 studies reporting on 1014 effects of risk factors, and classified each factor into one of 14 risk domains. via a five-point Likert scale (0 = strongly disagree; 4 = strongly agree). Risk Factors for Perpetration. The protective influence of social support, however, should be influenced by the individual’s perception of the norms of honour of family and friends. Most importantly, the sample sizes were unequal and rather small, which might have affected the validity of our findings. Present evidence regarding widely used risk assessment tools suggests that such tools may have inferior predictive validity for offenders with a migration background (MB), especially from Turkey and Arab countries. National disidentification as an alternative reaction to perceived ethnic discrimination, Culturally relevant assessment of indigenous offenders: A literature review, Some explanations of crime among four ethnic groups in the Netherlands, Ethnic minorities and criminal justice in the Netherlands, Ethnic discrimination in Germany's labour market: A field experiment, Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family, Culture and basic psychological processes–toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. pertaining to structural violence and 3 items referring to collective violence according to Schori-Eyal, Halperin, and Bar-Tal (2014). Gender. with a four-point Likert scale (0 = strongly disagree; 3 = strongly agree). ‘People in Islamic countries are often poor, because they are suppressed by the West’.). 5 Risk factors for general and sexual delinquency Risk factors for general delinquency and crime have been identified across a number of prospective longitudinal studies. Hypothesis 2: Risk factors associated with culturally shaped values, like adherence to traditional norms of honour, disapproval of sexual self-determination, and antisemitism, correlate positively with delinquency among men with a Turkish or Arab MB. There are risk factors that are said to be predictors of delinquency. Second, attitudes like individual norms of honour, antisemitism and a wholesome disapproval of sexual self-determination positively correlated with delinquency, which supported our second hypothesis. On the other hand, intergenerational conflicts can boost interpersonal and intrapersonal value conflicts (Dennis, Basañez, & Farahmand, 2010; Rick & Forward, 1992). Risk factors are characteristics linked with youth violence, but they are not direct causes of youth violence. As Table 1 shows, the educational level in the total sample was rather high, as 46.5% had completed A-Levels. (1987). Going beyond, culturally shaped values can also provide strong protective influences against delinquency. By studying these risk factors, researchers and practitioners are able to enhance prevention programs by targeting the very factors or characteristics that are known to lead to delinquency. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. While conducting such multiple significance tests, we considered the false discovery rate (FDR; Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995). An intense experience of a conflict of values can also foster deviant behaviour as a maladaptive strategy for coping with negative emotions (McQueen, Greg Getz, & Bray, 2003; Shrake & Rhee, 2004). For example, the regression on the severity of delinquency suffered from potential autocorrelations which limit the interpretability of the model. Exposure to violence takes many forms: abuse at the hands of a parent or another household member, or witnessing domestic violence between two other household members. substance abuse) are supposed to be valid in every cultural subgroup, this approach overlooks the importance of cultural values in forming daily life and norms (c.f. 1014 effects of risk factors, influenced by various risk factors include age, gender, complications during and... Psychology students rated the various reaction alternatives of the social context can provide important resources that might not be nor! 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