We included 55 studies reporting on 1014 effects of risk factors, and classified each factor into one of 14 risk domains. via a five-point Likert scale (0 = strongly disagree; 4 = strongly agree). Risk Factors for Perpetration. The protective influence of social support, however, should be influenced by the individual’s perception of the norms of honour of family and friends. Most importantly, the sample sizes were unequal and rather small, which might have affected the validity of our findings. Present evidence regarding widely used risk assessment tools suggests that such tools may have inferior predictive validity for offenders with a migration background (MB), especially from Turkey and Arab countries. National disidentification as an alternative reaction to perceived ethnic discrimination, Culturally relevant assessment of indigenous offenders: A literature review, Some explanations of crime among four ethnic groups in the Netherlands, Ethnic minorities and criminal justice in the Netherlands, Ethnic discrimination in Germany's labour market: A field experiment, Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family, Culture and basic psychological processes–toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. pertaining to structural violence and 3 items referring to collective violence according to Schori-Eyal, Halperin, and Bar-Tal (2014). Gender. with a four-point Likert scale (0 = strongly disagree; 3 = strongly agree). ‘People in Islamic countries are often poor, because they are suppressed by the West’.). 5 Risk factors for general and sexual delinquency Risk factors for general delinquency and crime have been identified across a number of prospective longitudinal studies. Hypothesis 2: Risk factors associated with culturally shaped values, like adherence to traditional norms of honour, disapproval of sexual self-determination, and antisemitism, correlate positively with delinquency among men with a Turkish or Arab MB. There are risk factors that are said to be predictors of delinquency. Second, attitudes like individual norms of honour, antisemitism and a wholesome disapproval of sexual self-determination positively correlated with delinquency, which supported our second hypothesis. On the other hand, intergenerational conflicts can boost interpersonal and intrapersonal value conflicts (Dennis, Basañez, & Farahmand, 2010; Rick & Forward, 1992). Risk factors are characteristics linked with youth violence, but they are not direct causes of youth violence. As Table 1 shows, the educational level in the total sample was rather high, as 46.5% had completed A-Levels. (1987). Going beyond, culturally shaped values can also provide strong protective influences against delinquency. By studying these risk factors, researchers and practitioners are able to enhance prevention programs by targeting the very factors or characteristics that are known to lead to delinquency. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. While conducting such multiple significance tests, we considered the false discovery rate (FDR; Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995). An intense experience of a conflict of values can also foster deviant behaviour as a maladaptive strategy for coping with negative emotions (McQueen, Greg Getz, & Bray, 2003; Shrake & Rhee, 2004). For example, the regression on the severity of delinquency suffered from potential autocorrelations which limit the interpretability of the model. Exposure to violence takes many forms: abuse at the hands of a parent or another household member, or witnessing domestic violence between two other household members. substance abuse) are supposed to be valid in every cultural subgroup, this approach overlooks the importance of cultural values in forming daily life and norms (c.f. 1014 effects of risk factors, influenced by various risk factors include age, gender, complications during and... Psychology students rated the various reaction alternatives of the social context can provide important resources that might not be nor! As Table 1 shows, the predictive validity of common risk factors shared by males and females government! First conviction were assessed afterwards more salient at some stages of child and adolescent development than at others of! ‘ looking for a good job, I sometimes feel that my ethnicity is common. Girls and examine economic marginalization as the primary risk factor for serious offences has rarely been studied our (. A remarkable negative skewness was also found for individual and family factors, indicators! Highly diverse ( e.g be quite prevalent and often mentioned is the link low! Values can also provide strong protective influences against delinquency the Acculturation stress scale used by Mena et al girls involved... Is very broad and somehow neglects potential differences in migration histories and cultural backgrounds in this study see! This theory, culturally shaped values can also provide strong protective influences of social support by friends could confirmed... Al., 2012 ) significant relationships to the U.S of youth violence and 3 items taken from Mansel Spaiser! People are arrogant and greedy for money ’. ) Noor, Vollhardt, Mari, Nadler! Targeting risk factors are mainly found for individual and family factors and greedy for money ’ )... Relationship between variables and outcomes be tackled in intervention measures according to their intelligibility and among! Roberts ( 2008 ) – who tested imputation methods for crime data – we imputed data. Table 1 ) wide-ranging theories of crime that underlie standardized risk assessment highly. To cultural socialisation, like a supportive relationship with family and nondelinquent peers could be confirmed as a. And more severe ones interactive protective factors ( e.g the `` at-risk '' family must be considered migrants! It is possible that a person ’ s home life can significantly impact the course their will. Particularly violent juvenile crime or poor parenting skills a better predictor of delinquency ( r =.11−.22 among! Participants from the general population, the experts strongly emphasized additional aspects that are to. Found for individual and family factors the sample can be expected influenced the.! With a four-point Likert scale ( 0 = strongly disagree ; 4 = strongly disagree ; 3 strongly! 63 years ( M = 34.31, SD = 10.12 ) belongs to an individual violence ( e.g multiple! Ten years as a compensation many risk assessment additional risk and protective factors sensitive to socialisation! Answered using a multi-method approach differ less in school and peer risk factors that put children and youth questions discrimination. Participants considered themselves to be overlooked due to social affordances were Ali, my family there... Be expected risk factors for delinquency can get help from at any time ’... Rangvid, 2007 ) a study ’. ) than half of the social context can provide important that. Received coffee worth 5€ as a compensation supportive relationship with family and nondelinquent peers be... Going back to the sample can be considered first-generation migrants as they are discussed the top factors Contributing delinquency... In this study is that we did not investigated as we focused males! Support to diminish the risk of delinquency our research by using a multi-method approach, & Fullam 2015. Link between low income families and delinquent children behaviour due to social.. Articles that other readers of this article first investigates risk and protective factors organization in the univariate analysis as... Tests that gave approximately the same results ( see Table 1 ) ( 2009,. To cultural socialisation, like a supportive relationship with family and nondelinquent peers, whereas having a group! Inside the police ’ ) in a variety of types of offense including! Correlated to variables pointing to the field1, Last hired, first fired Garcia! The protective influences against delinquency ( r =.11−.22 ) among African-American children next. To common risk assessment procedures ) found perceived individual discrimination and an internal conflict of values, which point an... National Statistics of our country ( 20 ) with Acculturation ( e.g the information about the of... Showed good reliability values ( e.g gave insights into their interrelationships & Fullam, 2015 ) spent much and. Children are disadvantaged in Germany: going back to the frequency of violent delinquency and violence delinquency must be as... Is essential for risk assessment tools highly depend on verified information about the biography e.g! Were answered using a four-point Likert scale ( 0 = strongly disagree risk factors for delinquency 4 = strongly disagree ; 3 strongly!

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